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.....cannabis testing kits...................Growing Marijuana Outdoors / Indoors

Growing Marijuana Outdoors is the easiest method. Contrary to popular belief, grass grows well in many place on the North American continent. It will flourish even if the temperature does not raise above 75 degrees.

The marijuana plants do need a minimum of eight hours of sunlight per day and should be planted in late April/early May, BUT DEFINITELY, after the last frost of the year.

Growing marijuana plants outdoor, or au natural, crop has been the favoured method over the years, because grass seems to grow better without as much attention when in its natural habitat.

Of course, an outdoors setting requires special precautions not encountered with an indoors crop; you must be able to avoid detection, both from law enforcement freaks and common freaks, both of whom will take your weed and probably use it.

Of course, one will also arrest you. You must also have access to the area to prepare the soil and harvest the crop. There are two schools of thought about starting the seeds.

One says you should start the seedlings for about ten days in an indoor starter box. The other says plant them in the ground. That is a choice you will have to make.

The plants should be planted at least three feet apart, getting too greedy and stacking them too close will result in stunted plants. The plants like some water during their growing season, BUT not too much. This is especially true around the roots, as too much water will rot the root system.

Grass grows well in corn or hops, and these plants will help provide some camouflage. It does not grow well with rye, spinach, or pepperweed. It is probably a good idea to plant in many small, broken patches, as people tend to notice patterns.

Both the male and he female plant produce THC resin, although the male is not as strong as the female. In a good crop, the male will still be plenty smokeable and should not be thrown away under any circumstances.

Marijuana can reach a height of twenty feet (or would you rather wish on a star) and obtain a diameter of 4 1/2 inches. If normal, it has a sex ratio of about 1:1, but this can be altered in several ways.

The male plant dies in the 12th week of growing, the female will live another 3 - 5 weeks to produce her younguns. Females can weigh twice as much as males when they are mature.

Marijuana soil should compact when you squeeze it, but should also break apart with a small pressure and absorb water well.

A nice test for either indoor or outdoor growing is to add a bunch of worms to the soil, if they live and hang around, it is good soil, but if they don't, well, change it. Worms also help keep the soil loose enough for the plants to grow well.


Seeds
 

To get good grass, you should start with the right cannabis seeds . A nice starting point is to save the seeds form the best batch you have consumed.

The seeds should be virile, that is, they should not be gray and shrivelled up, but green, meaty, and healthy in appearance.

A nice test is to drop the seeds on a hot frying pan. If they CRACK, they are probably good for planting purposes.

The seeds should be soaked in distilled water overnight before planting. BE SURE to plant in the ground with the pointy end UP. Plant about 1/2 inch deep. Healthy seeds will sprout in about five days.

Sprouting

The best all around sprouting method is probably to make a sprouting box (as sold in nurseries) with a slated bottom or use paper cups with holes punched in the bottoms. The sprouting soil should be a mixture of humus, soil, and five sand with a bit of organic fertilizer and water mixed in about one week before planting.

When ready to transplant, you must be sure and leave a ball of soil around the roots of each plant. This whole ball is dropped into a baseball-sized hold in the permanent soil.

If you are growing/transplanting indoors, you should use a green safe light (purchased at nurseries) during the transplanting operation. If you are transplanting outdoors, you should time it about two hours before sunset to avoid damage to the plant. Always wear cotton gloves when handling the young plants.

After the plants are set in the hole, you should water them. It is also a good idea to use a commercial transplant chemical (also purchased at nurseries) to help then overcome the shock.



Harvesting And Drying

The male plants will be taller and have about five green or yellow sepals, which will split open to fertilize the female plant with pollen. The female plant is shorter and has a small pistillate flower, which really doesn't look like a flower at all but rather a small bunch of leaves in a cluster.

If you don't want any seeds, just good dope, you should pick the males before they shed their pollen as the female will use some of her resin to make the seeds.

After another three to five weeks, after the males are gone, the females will begin to wither and die (from loneliness?), this is the time to pick. In some nefarious Middle Eastern countries, farmers reportedly put their beehives next to fields of marijuana. The little devils collect the grass pollen for their honey, which is supposed to contain a fair dosage of THC.

The honey is then enjoyed by conventional methods or made into ambrosia. If you want seeds - let the males shed his pollen then pick him. Let the female go another month and pick her.

To cure the plants, they must be dried. On large crops, this is accomplished by constructing a drying box or drying room. You must have a heat source (such as an electric heater) which will make the box/room each 130 degrees.

The box/room must be ventilated to carry off the water-vapor-laden air and replace it with fresh. A good box can be constructed from an orange crate with fiberglass insulated walls, vents in the tops, and screen shelves to hold the leaves. There must be a baffle between the leaves and the heat source.

A quick cure for smaller amounts is to: cut the plant at the soil level and wrap it in a cloth so as not to loose any leaves. Take out any seeds by hand and store.

Place all the leaves on a cookie sheet or aluminium foil and put them in the middle shelf of the oven, which is set on broil. In a few seconds, the leaves will smoke and curl up, stir them around and give another ten seconds before you take them out.

 

Growing Marijuana Indoors

Indoor growing has many advantages, besides the apparent fact that it is much harder to have your crop found, you can control the ambient conditions just exactly as you want them and get a guaranteed good plant.

Marijuana plants grown indoors will not appear the same as their outdoor cousins. They will be scrawnier appearing with a weak stems and may even require you to tie them to a growing post to remain upright, BUT THEY WILL HAVE AS MUCH OR MORE RESIN!

About Hydroponics

Hydroponics is the name given for a variety of techniques for growing plants without soil. It was realized by researchers into plant metabolism that plants took in their nutrients as simple inorganic ions, and that soil, while a source for such nutrients, was not essential. While a plant's nutrients come from the soil, the only nutrients a plant can successfully absorb are those that dissolve into the plant's water supply. When the required nutrients are introduced into a plant's water supply artificially, soil is no longer required for the plant to thrive.

Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

In this method, the plants grow through light-proof plastic films placed over shallow, gently sloping channels. A steady flow of nutrients is maintained along the channel, and the roots grow into dense mats, with a thin film of nutrient passing over them (hence the name of the technique). A downside of the technique is that it has very little buffering against interruptions in the flow eg power outages, but overall, it is probably one of the more productive techniques.

Basic Kit to Grow Marijuana Indoors
Simple Pot and NFT Set Ups

You don`t need a lot of kit to start growing great flowering plants in a cupboard, wardrobe, attic or grow space. Apart from the plants the lamp is the most important thing. There are two types used for growing light hungry plants. Metal Halide (MH) or High Pressure Sodium (HPS). HPS lamps used with horizontal reflectors (shades) produce the most usable light per watt of electricity and flowering plants love the light they produce. A 600 watt HPS lamp will light about 1 square meter of growing space. All the kit listed below can be found at a grow shop near you.


Basic Kit for Growing Marijuana Indoors in Pots

1. High Pressure Sodium Lamp (600 watt is the most efficient but a 400 watt may suit a smaller space).
2. Fan running 24 hours a day if possible and oscillating.
3. Pots, trays and chosen growing medium. 50% potting compost 50% Perlite is a basic mix. Raise the pots in the trays with bricks or bits of wood so they don`t sit in a puddle when watered.
4. 24 hour timer to control light periods. This should be used with a high power switch known as a contactor or relay switch as grow lamps can easily burn out regular timers used on their own.
5. A pH tester to test water and nutrient feed solutions.
6. pH adjuster such as phosphoric acid to adjust water and feed solution to around pH 6.0 - 7.0.
7. Nutrients, ones aimed at growing the plant you want to cultivate are best.
8. Matt white paint or white plastic to cover the walls of the grow space.


Also useful are a measuring bucket, measuring jug, large syringe and pea netting or string to support top heavy plants. If you can afford it a great help is a Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) meter. These allow you to check the nutrient levels of feeding solutions to make sure they are optimised for your plants.


Growing marijuana hydroponically in a Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) Tank is really simple and not something to be afraid of. In fact some beginners to growing may find it easier than using soil mixtures in pots. You do not have to judge if the plants need watering or feeding so much using NFT, as long as you follow the simple instructions supplied with the tanks the plants should look after themselves.


Basic Kit to Grow Marijuana Indoors in NFT Tanks

1. High Pressure Sodium Lamp (600 watt is the most efficient but a 400 watt may suit a smaller space).
2. Fan running 24 hours a day if possible and oscillating.
3. NFT tank with pump and spreader mat (these come with the tank), Rockwool cubes.
4. 24 hour timer to control light periods. This should be used with a high power switch known as a contactor or relay switch as grow lamps can easily burn out regular timers used on their own.
5. A pH tester to test water and nutrient feed solutions.
6. pH adjuster such as phosphoric acid to adjust water and feed solution to around pH 5.2 - 6.0.
7. Nutrients, ones aimed at growing the plant you want to cultivate are best.
8. Matt white paint or white plastic to cover the walls of the grow space.


Also useful is a measuring bucket, measuring jug, large syringe and pea netting or string to support top heavy plants. If you can afford it a great help is a Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) meter. These allow you to check the nutrient levels of feeding solutions to make sure they are optimised for your plants.



Also...
Wherever you decide to set up your grow space remember that the plants night time or dark period is very important. Check that when the light goes off the grow space is in total darkness. Proper ventilation for the grow space should also be considered as the area can become very humid. Opening up the space daily may be enough but larger areas may need extractor fans to avoid problems.

 

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marijuana testing labs Understanding Hydroponics cannabis testing kit

 

step 1 Substrate

Although not necessary for the survival of a plant, substrate can help to support a plant physically and hold it upright, either by securing the root system, or by outweighing the plant itself. There are many kinds of substrates commercially available. Check your local greenhouse or hardware store. Alternatively, there are plenty to be found outdoors, especially near bodies of water.
Even simple rock can alter the PH of your system. When checking your PH balance, be sure to check it after it has circulated through your substrate.

In the moisture-rich conditions hydroponics typically provide, substrate can be generally classified into the following categories: sandy, granular, and pebbled.

Sandy environments consist of particles between .06 (fine) and 2mm (coarse) in diameter. Even coarse sand retains a considerable amount of water (except in comparison to soil), and is not generally considered appropriate for use in a hydroponic system. If you use a pump, for example, the small particle size may lead to clogging. However, it is cheap and readily available, and, when wet, is heavy enough to provide a reasonable anchor for plant roots.
There is some absorbable nutrient in sand. Typically speaking, the nutrients latent in sand culture vary widely on the substrate's color and origin. Most sand contains a large quantity of shell fragments, and thus has a high calcium content.
Black sand usually has a high magnetite content originating from volcanic rock, known for its fertility. Orange or yellow sand might be an indicator of a high iron content.
White sand tends to be very high in silica, which helps build healthy cell walls in plantlife. Diahydro, for example, is made from diatoms, a type of algae.
Sand is semi-reusable. Sterilizing it between uses can be messy. (Sand can be sterilized by boiling it in water for extended periods of time.)

Granular particles range between 2 and 4mm. This may consist of gravel, or plant mulch.
Stone gravel makes a heavy, non-biodegradable anchor for plant roots, and is highly recommended for use in hydroponic systems. Stone gravel contains very little latent plant nutrition, just like sand. There are several grades of gravel readily available to choose from.
Creek rock and Pea Gravel consist of round, shiny stones. The smooth shape of these stones allows for great aeration and root growth, although the drainage may be excessive.
Crushed rock is typically made by crushing large chunks of limestone or dolomite into smaller pieces. Crushed rock has sharper edges than creek rock, and tends to interlock better. This tighter knit makes for higher water retention, although limestone tends to weigh less. Limestone is a strong alkali. Check your PH, and balance accordingly.
Stone-based substrate is highly re-useable. It is considerably less messy than sand to boil for sterilization.
If weight is not a concern (ie: the plants you grow are not expected to reach considerable heights) you might consider using a plant mulch, such as peat mulch, cedar shavings, or coir (coconut peat). Mulches retain a high quantity of water, but also breathe very well. Mind you, they are also highly degradable, which can lead to clogged pumps, and wood shavings often contain aromatic oils which can inhibit plant growth. Mould and algae growth poses a higher risk when mulches are involved, but pose one considerable advantage over rocky substrate: they can be composted and replaced with fresh material. It does not need to be stored. I would n't suggest re-using 'em, anyway. This is especially convenient if you use hydroponic systems exclusively to start seeds, or grow during the off-season.

Pebbled substrate measures between 4 and 64mm.
Stone pebbles have the basic characteristics of creek rock. They are typically smooth, often shiny, and the gaps between the stones make for low water retention and high aeration. The shinier the stone, the worse the water retention will be. A matte or pockmarked surface indicates a porous stone, which will stay damper, longer, whilst still providing excellent aeration. Pebbles-- especially the porous variety-- can explode when heated for sterilization.

A common alternative to these substrates is mineral (rock) wool. You've probably seen it used as insulation in housing. Rock wool contains fiberglass, and it can be absorbed into the body by inhalation-- irritating eyes, skin, and lungs. It needs to be treated before it is a tolerable substrate for plant growth. Altogether, I don't recommend its use.

As I've said, you should boil your substrate between uses to sterilize it. Bacteria love warm, wet environments and will probably thrive in a hydroponic system.
Just a heads-up, here... algae loves wet and warm (and lukewarm... and cold) systems, too, and it can look unsightly. If you care about appearances, boiling your substrate between uses will discourage blossoming, but if you use grey (recycled from previous use) water you'll be fighting a losing battle.

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step 2 Plant Food

This article discusses nutrient solutions available for hydroponic gardening.

Water alone is not enough to feed a plant. Distilled water, in particular, lacks the minerals and nutrients which make flora thrive.
In systems where the substrate is allowed to moisten and support roots, the substrate itself may be permeated with nutrients and minerals. In systems where there is no substrate, or the substrate is simply provided to support the plant physically, the water must be saturated with store-bought or homemade nutrient-and-mineral solutions.

The PH of your solution is important for the health of your flora, and the maintenance of your equipment. Your water/nutrient solution should have a final PH between 6.0 and 7.0.
These solutions usually contain varying quantities of potassium nitrate, calcium nitrate, potassium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, and nickel. Potassium, especially, assists with healthy root growth. Salt is an important (but often forgotten) addition to the solution, as it tends to improve the taste of the plants grown.

Store-bought liquid-soluble fertilizers are readily available at your local big-box greenhouse, nursery, or hardware store. They work well enough, but they can be expensive, or simply may not be available.

The rest of the article will discuss making your own fertile solution.

A popular, homemade recipe consisting of accessible ingredients is available at your disposal. I daresay it's not the most eco-friendly option, but it's quick and easy. For every gallon of water your system requires, add two teaspoons of Miracle Gro and 1 teaspoon of epsom salts.

I've always found semi-symbiotic relationships both fascinating and convenient.

On a controversial note, human urine can be used as a nutrient solution. Remember, the body filters everything you eat and drink, expelling toxins and retaining the essentials. If you eat something slathered in pesticides, you'll be urinating it out later. If you use that urine to grow spinach, you'll re-absorb it when you eat it. There are risks involved. Do your research.
You'll need to have a sample of your pee tested by a floraculture lab, of course, so you may need to adjust your diet. Vegans will find their urine more appropriate for plant growth than their animal-product-eating companions.
If the plants you are growing are intended for consumption, you will need to find a way to treat and sterilize your urine, making it less of a biohazard. Introducing nitrous bacteria, and diluting the solution, will help break down the ammonia prevalent in your urine. Circulating it through a biofilter will do this. Alternatively, you may be able to find an ammonia treatment in your local aquarium store.
Wanna learn how to build a biofilter? I'll get back to you on that one.

You might consider using your hydroponic system in lieu of a filter for a fish tank, hooking up a circular system filtering fish water through various substrates. There are three kinds of filter medias used in household tanks-- mechanical, biological, and chemical.
Mechanical media is used to filter out solid matter-- chunks of substrate, algae scrapings, what have you. Sponges and fibrous materials (rock wool, for example) work admirably in this fashion. Consider inserting a sponge or somesuch in each plant's drain, to reduce the risk of clogging your system, at the very least.
Biological filters are meant to encourage colonies of healthy bacteria, and control levels of ammonia, nitrites and nitrates prevalent in fish waste. Your plants will be glad to serve this function.
Chemical filters clean your water of unwanted color and odor. Unfortunately, it also excels at removing the trace elements which allow plants to thrive. You won't need it.
If you already have a fishtank, you could simply use the water you would normally siphon off and discard during cleaning, and use it to top off your hydroponics system. If your fishtank filtered, you'll have limited success with this technique.

In the meantime, consider this: a successful hydroponics system will grow plenty of plant matter, and much of it will be consumed. What little waste there is, could be recycled back into the system (accompanied by other waste matter) with the help of another animal: the worm.


VERMICOMPOSTING

Vermicomposting is a composting technique in which live worms are used to turn food waste into fertile soil. A handy by-product of the process is a nutrient-rich liquid commonly referred to as "worm tea".
Obviously, this bin won't be for composting materials from your hydroponic system exclusively-- your kitchen scraps should go in, too. Waste not, want not!

Vermicompost can be suitable for indoor and outdoor composting. If maintained properly, a good vermicompost system will not stink the same way traditional compost can. The ammonia smell we commonly associate with compost is only prevalent when the wet waste content (rotting detritus) of the bin overexceeds the dry matter (paper or plant fiber) mixed in. Worms-- red wrigglers in particular-- like to have soft, dry bedding like shredded paper or coconut fiber available to them, anyway. A stinky bin usually means unhappy worms.

There are many ways to compost in this fashion, however, for the intentions of this instructable, we will focus on the relatively uncomplicated "non-continuous" vermicompost bin.
This system is usually very small and easy to build, but if you plan on using the worm castings as well as the worm tea, you'll need to dump out the whole container after draining it. I would highly recommend transferring your worms and a small portion of the castings to another vermicompost system of any other build type, after dumping.

In order to harvest liquid worm tea (instead of distilling it from worm castings in a water bath) you will need a large plastic bucket with a draining tap and a lid. Plastic is nonporous, unlike wood, so it shouldn't absorb the valuable tea. That old, giant thermos football players bully their waterboys around would do the trick nicely.
Non-continuous systems like this can be very simple-- they're just an undivided container layered from the bottom up as follows: sump, bedding, worms, wet waste, dirt.
The bottom layer-- the sump-- should consist of a two-inch deep level of small stones and gravel. This area will be rife with crevices liquid can settle into, to drain at your convenience. A layer of fine mesh should be placed over this level to prevent the worms and their solid castings from falling into the sump. Mesh should not be placed between any other levels.
Worm bedding, as mentioned earlier, is typically three inches of loosely-packed shredded paper or coconut fiber. This level will help aerate the mixture, lower fragrant nitrogen levels, and allow your worms to thrive.
Your wet waste should never include meat or dairy product like cheese or yoghurt. Frankly speaking, those things stink when they decompose, which they do quickly because of their high protein content. Genuinely putrid food is toxic to worms. Beans are also high-protein, and dangerous as such. Oils and fats prevalent in animal products will cling to the skins of your wrigglers and suffocate them.
Stick to eggshells, tea bags, vegetable peels, stale/mouldy bread, coffee grounds, rotting fruit, etc. Citrus fruit is generally considered safe, but not citrus peel-- the oil found in the skins are toxic. Banana peels are usually heavily sprayed with herbicides and pesticides, so include them at your own peril. Worms are highly sensitive to poison.
Wet waste should be covered with another layer of bedding, for odor control.

As the worms eat the rotting material, add wet waste to the top level, sprinkling with shredded paper as you go. The worms will consume what they can, and then travel up out of their castings (urine and feces) and into the new feed. Continue the process until the bin is full, and most of the edible matter has been turned into castings by the worms. Drain the sump whenever your hydroponic system requires more fertilizer.
Make sure you test the water's final PH, and adjust accordingly!

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step 3 Lighting

In nature, plants photosynthesize white light from the sun. Sunlight is free. Use it where and when you can.
There's no reason you can't build your system outside, after all, climate permitting. Alternatively, consider placing your hydroponic system in a room with plenty of natural lighting.
If you live in the north hemisphere, for example, your south-facing rooms typically get the most light over the course of the day. Put it there.

During the winter, even in areas where the temperature is tolerable year-round, the sun's light is weak, and plants will suffer. Besides, hydroponic systems are typically indoors where location limits proper daytime lighting to two or three hours in the middle of the season.

You can help mother nature along by using artificial light.

Artificial grow-lighting kits can be purchased in stores, or built on a budget at home. The cost will depend heavily on how many plants you plan to be lighting.
Frankly, you can expect to lay down at least $100 to light a very small area-- we're talking a meter squared, here.
Plants absorb red and blue light wavelengths efficiently, which stimulates growth. More importantly, plants absorb one more than the other. Whether you buy or build your grow lights, you should be looking for an 8-1 ratio of red and blue emitters. (8 red for every blue, not vice-versa.)
Although green lights are commonly included in standard grow light kits, they're not considered "necessary". Green light is mostly reflected, producing the vibrant color we associate with healthy leaves. Grown without green light, plants take on much darker shade-- almost black-- and rumor has it they take on different flavor characteristics. However, if energy consumption is a concern (this is a budget-saving project, after all) eliminate the green light, but not the blue or red.

LEDs are highly recommended for hydroponic projects, considering the serious advantages they hold over traditional halogen bulbs. They have much longer life-spans, produce less heat and consume less energy. For bonus eco-points, power your LEDs with solar chargers!
Consider the cost of the LEDs to be an investment towards lower energy bills (especially in comparison to operating halogen grow lights) and smaller grocery tabs.
There is one major drawback to using LED lighting, besides the cost. (Derrekito brought this up on another instructable.) The average plant absorbs is happiest absorbing red light at 600-625nm. The average red LED emits light at about 630-660nm.
LED lighting isn't perfect. I highly recommend supplementing with natural light.

I am not the person to ask about building LED grow-light systems. There are plenty of existing instructables available on the subject. Instructable's own }{itch seems to know his stuff. Look'im up.
http://www.instructables.com/id/high-power-LED-grow-lights-M.k2/

 

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step 4 Irrigation

In hydroponics, water can be delivered to a plant via local irrigation, or sub-irrigation.
Local irrigation is a general term, describing the process of piping small amounts of water to individual plants. Typically this water is administered at the surface level. Drip and sprinkler irrigation works in this manner.
Sub-irrigation simply refers to any system which forces water to be absorbed from the bottom of a root system, to travel upwards-- wicking techniques partially submersing the roots or substrate of a plant are common.
Water is a valuable commodity. If you can, be eco-friendly by collecting rain or melted snow. As mentioned previously, siphoning used aquarium water from your fishtank in lieu of a filter will provide a nitrate-rich nutrient solution for your plants and the moisture they need to survive. There are lots of green alternatives to treated tap water.

 

 

 

 

thc test  kits Clones, Cuttings, Seeds thc,cbd testing

Many people opt to purchase a tray of cuttings when starting out, so they get a faster return on their investment. This is sensible, but there is no substitute for learning, and growing from seed teaches you more about the plant. Growing from seed , especially from high numbers of seeds, allows for the selection of a particular plant that best suits your needs.

I always tell people who start from seed to be sure to take two clones from the bottom of each plant just before putting the plants into flower. These clones should be labeled with the same number as the mother plant from which it was taken, as well as the date it was cut. Keep those clones alive!

When you see which plant produces the best buds and is most worthy of your precious grow space, take the corresponding clones and grow them large under your metal halide on an eighteen hour light cycle . Your next crop can be all cuttings from your favourite plant. This harvest will be much more uniform than the last one, and this will improve the quality and quantity of your yield.

If you grow you should eventually cut and root your own clones . There are many ways to take clones, and I am going to share the simple procedure that I use to take mine. It's easy to do, especially once you get a feel for it.

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how to take the cutting

To get started you will need: a clean razor blade, a water mister, a tray with a clear plastic lid, a planting medium, and perhaps a jar of rooting hormone. Clones can be effectively rooted using nothing more than water , however most growers choose to dip their freshly cut stem into either a rooting powder or a gel.

Many growers cut the branch underwater so that no air bubbles will form in the stem of the new cutting. If air enters the stem it will prevent the stem from carrying water and the cutting will die. Dipping the cut end of the stem immediately into a rooting gel also solves the air bubble problem. If using a powder the cuttings must be wet so that the powder will adhere.

Use a toothpick or a nail to poke a hole in the planting medium, to ease the entry of the cut stem . It is important not to crush or bend the tender stem at all. Try and make the hole about the same size as the stem to be inserted.

When you have your tools and accessories ready and have soaked your medium, y ou should select a soft, small branch from the bottom of the plant , one that wouldn't amount to much anyway. If you are planning to keep the plant in vegetative growth to continue taking cuttings then you should take cuttings from any shoots that have two or three nodes. I take cuttings that are between two and four inches long, but some people prefer to take cuttings as long as eight inches.

The stem will root quickly if it is still soft and green , not woody. Make an even, diagonal slice through the branch with your clean razor, below the would-be cutting. Strip the bottom leaves off of the cutting, dip it in rooting gel and plant it.

If you make your cut right above a node on the branch then two new branches will sprout out as if it had been pinched . If you continue in this fashion then your mother will produce an exponential number of cuttings every two weeks. You will soon be proudly giving clones away to your friends (or maybe Sell them).

how to root your cuttings

So now you've cut and dipped your first batch of clones, stuck them in a medium, misted them, and put the clear plastic lid on the tray. Now put the trayunder fluorescent lights, about six inches away to start with, moving them a little closer every few days.

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I've rooted clones on the floor in my bedroom , and in many a veg room in the shade of a leafy mother. Both provide decent ambient light and a good temperature range. 24¡C is optimum temperature, but my experience is that as long as it's close to that it'll do . The clones must be warm but not scorched. Direct light will burn them because without roots the stem cannot supply the leaves with enough water to match the leaves' rate of transpiration.

Transpiration is a part of how the plant grows . Water and nutrients travel up the stem from the roots to the leaves, where they are used in photosynthesis. Tiny hairs called stomata sweat out the moisture to allow the stream of nutrients to continue flowing. Wind aids in transpiration by blowing the moisture off the stomata, which is why the lid is so important.

Another way to protect the stomata is to spray a light wax onto the cuttings . This slows transpiration to the point where you don't even need a lid, and the waxy coating serves as a protection against pests. I suggest you just try using a lid at first.

Remove the lid once a day and fan the cuttings with it for a few seconds. I also like to cut small holes into the corners of the lid so that there is a little ventilation , and I usually put holes into the corners of the tray to allow for drainage if the plants are over-watered. The roots need oxygen to thrive and survive.

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supplements & supplies

Oasis Foam is my favourite medium because it is so airy and quick to dry, and it has the added bonus of having a neutral pH balance. Olivia's is my favourite rooting gel, although I've tried many and they all work. I find that just soaking the tray before planting is usually sufficient to sustain the cuttings until they are rooted.

There are a number of nutritional additives that may be added to this soaking, but my experience is that they are not essential. You might try Spray & Thrive, Nutriboost, Powerthrive, Superthrive, Olivia's cloning solution, a mild seaweed solution, or a plethora of other products. Plain water works well too.

after cutting care

When the tray feels light water it . If the plants look dry, mist them. Check the bottom for roots after three days. Some strains will root this fast, while others may take up to ten days, or even two weeks. When roots are showing out of the sides and bottom of the medium it is time to transplant them into whatever medium you choose to grow them in.

Generally, your medium will be a pot with a well drained soil mixture , or one of any number of soilless cultures. The latter are definitely an improvement over soil when it comes to speed of production and overall yield, but it is much easier to grow marijuana in soil.

It is not that difficult to set up and operate a hydroponic system , but one detail like a faulty irrigation timer can cause devastation if not immediately corrected.

The hydroponic solution must be monitored closely and kept balanced, while a well prepared soil solution may not need any additional fertilizers for the entire life of the plant. As long as you water the soil when it gets dry the plant will thrive and be happy.

Soil-grown pot is considered by many to have a more palatable taste than hydroponically grown herb, but there are always exceptions to such rules. Some growers get the best of both worlds by experimenting with organic hydroponics, but most use basic stock solutions that contain fertilizer salts in a readily available form. These salts are easy to administer in tried-and-true formulas, but the problem is that these stock solutions tend to leave a metallic taste in the precious produce . Experienced growers know to leach their plants before harvest to remove residual salts from the buds, but it appears that few bother to leach sufficiently for a truly clean, pure taste.

A milder feed solution will prevent the build-up of excess fertilizer salts in the bud. Leaching time varies from grower to grower, from two days to two weeks. Some use plain or distilled water, others simply use a very diluted feed solution.

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clones are fantastic

Whatever grow system you use, you are bound to use clones sooner or later. They can greatly improve the efficiency of your growing area, and are a fantastic way to preserve your favourite plants.

An exceptional plant can be rejuvenated and cloned even after it has flowered and been harvested. If a small amount of vegetative matter is left growing on the bottom of the plant and it is placed under an eighteen hour light cycle then all the little nuggets will stretch into vegetative shoots, which may then be cloned and grown into a full mother plant, which can be cloned indefinitely. This will provide you with many uniform harvests of your favourite plant.

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